TITLE VI : MEETINGS
Sec. 49. Kinds of meetings. – Meetings of directors, trustees, stockholders, or members may be regular or special. (n)
Sec. 50. Regular and special meetings of stockholders or members. – Regular meetings of stockholders or members shall be held annually on a date fixed in the by-laws, or if not so fixed, on any date in April of every year as determined by the board of directors or trustees: Provided, That written notice of regular meetings shall be sent to all stockholders or members of record at least two (2) weeks prior to the meeting, unless a different period is required by the by-laws.
Special meetings of stockholders or members shall be held at any time deemed necessary or as provided in the by-laws: Provided, however, That at least one (1) week written notice shall be sent to all stockholders or members, unless otherwise provided in the by-laws.
Notice of any meeting may be waived, expressly or impliedly, by any stockholder or member.
Whenever, for any cause, there is no person authorized to call a meeting, the Secretaries and Exchange Commission, upon petition of a stockholder or member on a showing of good cause therefor, may issue an order to the petitioning stockholder or member directing him to call a meeting of the corporation by giving proper notice required by this Code or by the by-laws. The petitioning stockholder or member shall preside thereat until at least a majority of the stockholders or members present have been chosen one of their number as presiding officer. (24, 26)
Sec. 51. Place and time of meetings of stockholders or members. – Stockholders’ or members’ meetings, whether regular or special, shall be held in the city or municipality where the principal office of the corporation is located, and if practicable in the principal office of the corporation: Provided, That Metro Manila shall, for purposes of this section, be considered a city or municipality.
Notice of meetings shall be in writing, and the time and place thereof stated therein.
All proceedings had and any business transacted at any meeting of the stockholders or members, if within the powers or authority of the corporation, shall be valid even if the meeting be improperly held or called, provided all the stockholders or members of the corporation are present or duly represented at the meeting. (24 and 25)
Sec. 52. Quorum in meetings. – Unless otherwise provided for in this Code or in the by-laws, a quorum shall consist of the stockholders representing a majority of the outstanding capital stock or a majority of the members in the case of non-stock corporations. (n)
Sec. 53. Regular and special meetings of directors or trustees. – Regular meetings of the board of directors or trustees of every corporation shall be held monthly, unless the by-laws provide otherwise.
Special meetings of the board of directors or trustees may be held at any time upon the call of the president or as provided in the by-laws.
Meetings of directors or trustees of corporations may be held anywhere in or outside of the Philippines, unless the by-laws provide otherwise. Notice of regular or special meetings stating the date, time and place of the meeting must be sent to every director or trustee at least one (1) day prior to the scheduled meeting, unless otherwise provided by the by-laws. A director or trustee may waive this requirement, either expressly or impliedly. (n)
Sec. 54. Who shall preside at meetings. – The president shall preside at all meetings of the directors or trustee as well as of the stockholders or members, unless the by-laws provide otherwise. (n)
Sec. 55. Right to vote of pledgors, mortgagors, and administrators. – In case of pledged or mortgaged shares in stock corporations, the pledgor or mortgagor shall have the right to attend and vote at meetings of stockholders, unless the pledgee or mortgagee is expressly given by the pledgor or mortgagor such right in writing which is recorded on the appropriate corporate books. (n)
Executors, administrators, receivers, and other legal representatives duly appointed by the court may attend and vote in behalf of the stockholders or members without need of any written proxy. (27a)
Sec. 56. Voting in case of joint ownership of stock. – In case of shares of stock owned jointly by two or more persons, in order to vote the same, the consent of all the co-owners shall be necessary, unless there is a written proxy, signed by all the co-owners, authorizing one or some of them or any other person to vote such share or shares: Provided, That when the shares are owned in an “and/or” capacity by the holders thereof, any one of the joint owners can vote said shares or appoint a proxy therefor. (n)
Sec. 57. Voting right for treasury shares. – Treasury shares shall have no voting right as long as such shares remain in the Treasury. (n)
Sec. 58. Proxies. – Stockholders and members may vote in person or by proxy in all meetings of stockholders or members. Proxies shall in writing, signed by the stockholder or member and filed before the scheduled meeting with the corporate secretary. Unless otherwise provided in the proxy, it shall be valid only for the meeting for which it is intended. No proxy shall be valid and effective for a period longer than five (5) years at any one time. (n)
Sec. 59. Voting trusts. – One or more stockholders of a stock corporation may create a voting trust for the purpose of conferring upon a trustee or trustees the right to vote and other rights pertaining to the shares for a period not exceeding five (5) years at any time: Provided, That in the case of a voting trust specifically required as a condition in a loan agreement, said voting trust may be for a period exceeding five (5) years but shall automatically expire upon full payment of the loan. A voting trust agreement must be in writing and notarized, and shall specify the terms and conditions thereof. A certified copy of such agreement shall be filed with the corporation and with the Securities and Exchange Commission; otherwise, said agreement is ineffective and unenforceable. The certificate or certificates of stock covered by the voting trust agreement shall be canceled and new ones shall be issued in the name of the trustee or trustees stating that they are issued pursuant to said agreement. In the books of the corporation, it shall be noted that the transfer in the name of the trustee or trustees is made pursuant to said voting trust agreement.
The trustee or trustees shall execute and deliver to the transferors voting trust certificates, which shall be transferable in the same manner and with the same effect as certificates of stock.
The voting trust agreement filed with the corporation shall be subject to examination by any stockholder of the corporation in the same manner as any other corporate book or record: Provided, That both the transferor and the trustee or trustees may exercise the right of inspection of all corporate books and records in accordance with the provisions of this Code.
Any other stockholder may transfer his shares to the same trustee or trustees upon the terms and conditions stated in the voting trust agreement, and thereupon shall be bound by all the provisions of said agreement.
No voting trust agreement shall be entered into for the purpose of circumventing the law against monopolies and illegal combinations in restraint of trade or used for purposes of fraud.
Unless expressly renewed, all rights granted in a voting trust agreement shall automatically expire at the end of the agreed period, and the voting trust certificates as well as the certificates of stock in the name of the trustee or trustees shall thereby be deemed canceled and new certificates of stock shall be reissued in the name of the transferors.
The voting trustee or trustees may vote by proxy unless the agreement provides otherwise. (36a)